Cisco CCNA mock exam questions sample test – Question 394

.A packet is received with a destination IP address of 10.2.16.10. What would the next hop IP address be for this packet?

A. 192.168.1.10
B. 192.168.4.2
C. 192.168.10.254
D. None; the packet will be dropped.


Correct Answer: B

Explanation:
The packet will be routed to the next hop IP address of 192.168.4.2, since this routing table entry is the most specific match for the remote network. Packets are routed according to
the most specific, or “longest,” match in the routing table.
The packet in the scenario has a destination IP address of 10.2.16.10, which matches two entries in the routing table.
10.0.0.0 /8: this matches based on the /8 mask, where only the first byte has to match. The destination IP address of 10.2.16.10 has a first byte matching 10. If this were the only
matching route table entry, it would be selected.
10.2.16.0 /24: The first 24 bits of this entry match the first 24 bits of the destination IP address of 10.2.16.10.
Therefore, the 10.2.16.0 /24 entry is selected for routing this packet because it most specifically matches the destination IP address, or has the longest number of matching bits.
The next hops of 192.168.1.10 and 192.168.10.254 will not be used, as these routes are not the most specific matches for the destination IP address of the packet.
It is interesting to note that packets that are destined for the 10.2.32.0 network will be load balanced across both serial 0/0 and serial 0/1 because the cost (2172425) is the same for
both paths.
The packet will not be dropped because there is at least one routing table entry that matches the destination IP address of the packet.
To ensure that no packets are dropped, even if there is no matching route in the routing table, a default route could be configured as follows (next hop picked at random for
illustration):
Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1
This configuration would instruct the router to send any packets that do match the existing routes to 192.168.1.1. For example, a packet destined for 201.50.6.8/24 would not match
any routes in the table, and would thus be forwarded to 192.168.1.1.
If you understand how routing tables and routing advertisements work, it is relatively simple to describe the contents of a router’s routing table without seeing the table directly. To do
so, you would view the router’s configuration and the configuration of its neighbors using show run, along with a diagram of its network connections. For example, examine the
diagram of the two routers shown below along with their respective configurations:
It will contain S*0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 192.35.87.5 because of the static default route indicated in line 4 of its configuration output.
It will contain R 192.168.110.128/26 [120/1] via 192.35.87.5 00:00:22, Serial 0/0 because Router 2 has a network 192.168.110.128 statement indicating that it will advertise this
network to its neighbors.
It will contain the two routes C 192.35.87.4/30 is directly connected, S0/0 and C 192.168.54.64/26 is directly connected, Fa0/0 because all directly connected routes are automatically
placed in the table.
Objective:
Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective:
Interpret the components of routing table
References:
Cisco > Support > IP > IP Routing > Design > Design TechNotes > Route Selection in Cisco Routers > Document ID: 8651